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Chemistry & Biochemistry

The chemistry research guide can guide you in finding relevant resources for your research.

Tiffanie Ford-Baxter

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Tiffanie Ford-Baxter
Library North 2020A

What is an annotated bibliography?

Each citation should include a paragraph or annotation that evaluates the quality and accuracy of a source. Paragraphs are typically 150 words and should summarizes the central theme and includes why that source is relevant specifically for your research.

Information to consider including:

  • Authority of the author
  • Accuracy of the research
  • Strengths or weaknesses of the article
  • How the paper is related to your own research.

Why write an annotated bibliography?

Annotated bibliographies can:

  • help you see how your research is situated within the larger research conversation occurring now.
  • help reinforce what you just read.
  • help you think of the research/paper in your own words. This can be helpful to avoid accidentally plagiarizing some else's work.
  • help you decide if you are interested in a topic area.


Kletou, D., Hall-Spencer, J. M., & Kleitou, P. (2016). A lionfish (Pterois miles) invasion has begun in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biodiversity Records 9(46)1-7. doi:10.1186/s41200-016-0065-y

This article discusses the recent invasion of the lionfish in the Mediterranean Sea and offers reasons for the sudden increase in the species' presence.  The study concludes that
growth of the lionfish population can be controlled by encouraging commercial fishermen and divers to capture the lionfish to be sold on the market. While the article provides data and graphs that forecast the decline of the lionfish with a commercial fishing intervention, the methodology is incomplete. The researchers do not fully explain how they obtained these results.  The article does not address external factors that may derail the fishing plan proposed by the authors; for example, the researchers do not consider the population growth rate of the lionfish or how aggressive the fishing rate needs to be to control the population in a timely manner. Although the introduction is helpful in providing a framework for why the lionfish invasion is a concerning issue, the discussion lacks depth in addressing other issues that may arise.

 Provided by:

John F. Kennedy Memorial Library
California State University, Los Angeles
5151 State University Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90032-8300