Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
university logo

University Library

LBS 3600- Interdisciplinary Approaches to Culture and Society

Primary Source

• Uses first-person voice
"I saw... I escaped... I believed... We surveyed... We studied..."
• Has original, direct perspective
• Is an original, creative product
• Is a product of its immediate time / era
• Testifies, emotes, expresses

-Letters, diaries, memoirs, speeches
-Oral histories, interviews

-Photographs, films
-Government documents
-Art works [novels, poems, paintings, songs, murals, etc.]
-Artifacts [advertisements, posters, pamphlets, clothing, buildings, etc.]

-Original data, original research & case studies
-E-mail, blogs, Tweets

Secondary Source

•  Uses third-person voice
"He saw... She escaped... They believed... They surveyed...
They studied..."
•  Has second-hand, indirect perspective
•  Dependent, derivational product
•  Produced after some time has passed
•  Reports upon, analyzes

-Analytical scholarly articles
-Analytical essays & critiques

-Book reviews, music reviews, art reviews

Additional Help

John F. Kennedy Memorial Library
California State University, Los Angeles
5151 State University Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90032-8300