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University Library

LBS 3600- Interdisciplinary Approaches to Culture and Society

Primary Source

• Uses first-person voice
"I saw... I escaped... I believed... We surveyed... We studied..."
• Has original, direct perspective
• Is an original, creative product
• Is a product of its immediate time / era
• Testifies, emotes, expresses

Examples
-Letters, diaries, memoirs, speeches
-Oral histories, interviews

-Photographs, films
-Maps
-Government documents
-Art works [novels, poems, paintings, songs, murals, etc.]
-Artifacts [advertisements, posters, pamphlets, clothing, buildings, etc.]

-Original data, original research & case studies
-E-mail, blogs, Tweets

Secondary Source

•  Uses third-person voice
"He saw... She escaped... They believed... They surveyed...
They studied..."
•  Has second-hand, indirect perspective
•  Dependent, derivational product
•  Produced after some time has passed
•  Reports upon, analyzes

Examples
-Analytical scholarly articles
-Analytical essays & critiques

-Book reviews, music reviews, art reviews
-Histories

Additional Help

John F. Kennedy Memorial Library
California State University, Los Angeles
5151 State University Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90032-8300
323-343-3988