APA Format–6th Edition
OVERVIEW–The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as education, business, and nursing. The APA citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, which will lead the reader to the source of information in the reference page at the end of the paper.
NOTE: APA style requires double spacing throughout (e.g. text, references, etc.)
APA RULES FOR THE REFERENCE PAGE – The following sections show some of the more commonly used APA citation rules.
NOTE: All citations must be in the Hanging Indent Format with the first line flush to the left margin and all other lines indented.
Authors are listed by last name and initials only. List up to seven authors. For articles from eight or more authors list the first six authors, then a spaced ellipsis and the last author.
JOURNALS AND MAGAZINES PUBLISHED MONTHLY OR QUARTERLY
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxx
NOTE: Italicize the name of the journal and the volume number. Use the article’s DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the unique code given by the publisher to a specific article. Use the DOI information as it appears in the article. The examples below show the two versions – the numeric string or the alpha-numeric string.
Senior, B., & Swailes, S. (2007). Inside management teams: Developing a teamwork survey instrument. British
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J.-Y., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L.,...Griffin, W. A. (2000). An
NOTE: If there is no DOI, use the journal’s home page URL (web address). This may require a web search to locate the journal’s home page. There is no period at the end of web address. Break a long URL before the punctuation.
Koo, D. J., Chitwoode, D. D., & Sanchez, J. (2008). Violent victimization and the routine activities/lifestyle of active
NOTE: The entire date is used for daily, weekly or biweekly publications. The format is Year, Month Day.
Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying
NOTE: The issue number is not required if the journal is continuously paged. If the journal is paged individually, the issue number is required in the citation and is typed in parentheses adjacent to the volume number in regular type.
Healy, M. (2018, January 20). Concussion is the tip of CTE iceberg. Los Angeles Times, p. B2. Retrieved from
DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from web address
NOTE: If there are no individual authors listed, use the corporate author or the title of the document
Kenney, G. M., Cook, A., & Pelletier, J. (2009). Prospects for reducing uninsured rates among children: How much
National Association of Social Workers. (2017). NASW Code of Ethics (Rev ed.). Retrieved from
GVU's 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www .cc.gatech.edu/user_surveys/survey-1998-10/
Kidpsych is an excellent website for young children (http://www.kidpsych.org).
PRINT RESOURCES - BOOKS, CHAPTERS IN BOOKS, ETC.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location of Publisher: Publisher.
NOTE: The title of the book is italicized.
Alexie, S. (1992). The business of fancydancing: Stories and poems. Brooklyn, NY: Hang Loose Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).
Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (32nd ed.). (2011). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Von Hoene, L., Nilson, L. B., & Siering, G. (2017). Intended teaching effectiveness outcomes for instructors and
NOTE: The number of authors for any given work dictates the style:
Indirect Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Libraries historically highly value intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality (LaRue, 2007).
Indirect Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
LaRue (2007) identified intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality as two key values held historically by
Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical
Direct Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
Gould and Brown (1991) explained that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other
“Recognizing a teacher’s view of information literacy in an active learning environment may provide a basis
Maybee et al. (2016) further suggested that “librarians should be prepared to describe how using information
CITING SECONDARY SOURCES -- When citing in the text a work discussed in a secondary source, give both the primary and the secondary sources. In the example below, the study by Seidenberg and McClelland was mentioned in an article by Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller.
Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) provided a glimpse into the world.
In the references page, you would cite the secondary source you read not the original study.
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and
This chart can be a useful in correctly citing authors within the text of your paper.
This sample page will help you set up your headings.